Differences in Health Care Utilization, Process of Diabetes Care, Care Satisfaction and Health Status in Patients with Diabetes in Medicare Advantage vs Traditional Medicare. Medical Care
The objective of this study was to determine differences in health care utilization, process of diabetes care, care satisfaction, and health status for Medicare Advantage (MA) and traditional Medicare (TM) beneficiaries with and without diabetes. Using the 2010–2016 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, the authors identified MA and TM beneficiaries with and without diabetes. To address the endogenous plan choice between MA and TM, the authors used an instrumental variable approach. Using marginal effects, the authors estimated differences in the outcomes between MA and TM beneficiaries with and without diabetes. MA enrollment was associated with lower health care utilization without compromising care satisfaction and health status, particularly for beneficiaries with diabetes. MA may have a more efficient care delivery system for beneficiaries with diabetes.
Park S, Larson EB, Fishman P, White L, Coe NB: Differences in Health Care Utilization, Process of Diabetes Care, Care Satisfaction, and Health Status in Patients With Diabetes in Medicare Advantage Versus Traditional Medicare, Medical Care: September 10, 2020 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print
Association of Medicare Advantage Penetration With Per Capita Spending, Emergency Department Visits, and Readmission Rates Among Fee-for-Service Medicare Beneficiaries With High Comorbidity Burden
Rapid growth of Medicare Advantage (MA) plans has the potential to change clinical practice for both MA and fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries, particularly for high-need, high-cost beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions or a costly single condition. The authors assessed whether MA growth from 2010 to 2017 spilled over to county-level per capita spending, emergency department visits, and readmission rates among FFS beneficiaries, and how much this varied by the comorbidity burden of the beneficiary. The authors also examined whether the association between MA growth and per capita spending in FFS varied in beneficiaries with specific chronic conditions. MA growth was associated with decreased FFS spending and emergency department visits only among beneficiaries with six or more chronic conditions. MA growth was associated with decreased FFS spending among beneficiaries with 11 of the 20 chronic conditions. This suggests that MA growth may drive improvements in efficiency of health care delivery for high-need, high-cost beneficiaries.
Park S, Langellier BA, Burke RE, Figueroa JF, Coe NB. Association of Medicare Advantage Penetration With Per Capita Spending, Emergency Department Visits, and Readmission Rates Among Fee-for-Service Medicare Beneficiaries With High Comorbidity Burden. Medical Care Research and Review (MCRR). 2020 Aug 26: Epub ahead of print.
Sociodemographic trends in the United States may influence future dementia-associated mortality, yet there is little evidence about their potential impact. The study objective was to estimate the effect of dementia on survival in adults stratified by sex, education, and marital status. Methods: Using survey data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) linked to Medicare claims from 1991 to 2012, the authors identified a retrospective cohort of adults with at least one International Classification of Diseases—ninth revision—Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) dementia diagnosis code (n = 3,714). For each case, the authors randomly selected up to five comparators, matching on sex, birth year, education, and HRS entry year (n = 9,531), and assigned comparators the diagnosis date of their matched case. The authors estimated a survival function for the entire study population and then within successive strata defined by sex, education, and marital status. Both sex and level of education moderate the relationship between dementia diagnosis and length of survival.
White L, Fishman P, Basu A, Crane PK, Larson EB, Coe NB. Dementia Is Associated With Earlier Mortality for Men and Women in the United States. Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, 2020 Aug.
Rates of informal home care use among older adults with disabilities increased from 2004 to 2016, such that in 2016 almost three-quarters of these adults received informal home care. Informal care remains the most common source of home care, even though formal home care use grew at almost twice the rate, with a 6-percentage-point increase to 36.9 percent in 2016.
Van Houtven CH, Taggert E, Konetzka RT, Coe NB: Informal and Formal Home Care Both Increased Between 2004 and 2016, Potentially Reducing Unmet Needs of Older Adults (Data Watch). Health Affairs. August 2020.
A perspective piece discussing how COVID19 has further destabilized nursing homes and offering suggestions for how to improve long term care post-pandemic.
Werner R, Hoffman A, Coe NB: Long-Term Care Policy after Covid-19 - Solving the Nursing Home Crisis. (Perspective) The New England Journal of Medicine 382(22), May 2020.
Achieving effective, high-quality primary care for Medicare beneficiaries is a national priority as it encourages health promotion and maintenance, potentially reducing intensity of acute care services. Currently, there is ample data documenting intensity of primary care services, including rates of utilization and expenditures, for beneficiaries in fee-for-service Traditional Medicare (TM). However, less is known about the beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans, which now include 33% of the Medicare population. As managed care’s goal is to control costs while maintaining a high quality, MA plans may encourage greater primary care than is the case in TM. We examined whether this is the case by assessing primary care utilization and expenditures among beneficiaries in MA and TM.
Park S, Figueroa JF, Fishman P, Coe NB: Primary Care Utilization and Expenditures in Traditional Medicare and Medicare Advantage, 2007-2016. Journal of General Internal Medicine,35(8):2480-2481 May 2020.
Descriptive article covering the risk of COVID transmission in assisted living, independent living, and continuing care retirement communities.
Coe NB, Van Houtven CH. “Living Arrangements of Older Adults and COVID Risk: It is Not Just Nursing Homes.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2020. May. PMID: 32359073
Essential Long-Term Care Workers Commonly Hold Second Jobs and Double- or Triple-Duty Caregiving Roles
Long-term care (LTC) facilities are particularly dangerous places for the spread of COVID-19 given that they house vulnerable high-risk populations. Transmission-based precautions to protect residents, employees, and families alike must account for potential risks posed by LTC workers’ second jobs and unpaid care work. This observational study describes the prevalence of their (1) second jobs, and (2) unpaid care work for dependent children and/or adult relatives (double- and triple-duty caregiving) overall and by occupational group (registered nurses [RNs], licensed practical nurses [LPNs], or certified nursing assistants [CNAs]). The data used was a descriptive secondary analysis of data collected as part of the final wave of the Work, Family, and Health Study. Findings show that LTC workers commonly hold second jobs along with double- and triple-duty caregiving roles. To slow the spread of COVID-19, both the paid and unpaid activities of these employees warrant consideration in the identification of appropriate clinical, policy, and informal supports.
Van Houtven CH, DePasquale N, Coe NB: Essential Long-Term Care Workers Commonly Hold Second Jobs and Double- or Triple-Duty Caregiving Roles. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Apr 2020.
Health Care Utilization, Care Satisfaction, and Health Status for Medicare Advantage and Traditional Medicare Beneficiaries With and Without Alzheimer Disease and Related Dementias
The purpose of this study was to determine differences in health care utilization, care satisfaction, and health status for Medicare Advantage (MA) and Traditional Medicare (TM) beneficiaries with and without Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias (ADRD). A cohort study was conducted of MA and TM beneficiaries with and without ADRD from all publicly available years of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey between 2010 and 2016. To address advantageous selection into MA plans, county-level MA enrollment rate was used as an instrument. Data were analyzed between July 2019 and December 2019. Compared with TM beneficiaries, MA beneficiaries had lower health care utilization without compromising care satisfaction and health status. This difference was more pronounced among beneficiaries with ADRD. These findings suggest that MA plans may be delivering health care more efficiently than TM, especially for beneficiaries with ADRD.
Park S, White L, Fishman P, Larson EB, Coe NB: Health Care Utilization, Care Satisfaction, and Health Status for Medicare Advantage and Traditional Medicare Beneficiaries With and Without Alzheimer Disease and Related Dementias. JAMA Network Open 3(3), Mar 2020.
The Impact of Medicare Copayments for Skilled Nursing Facilities on Length of Stay, Outcomes, and Costs
The purpose of this article was to investigate the impact of Medicare's skilled nursing facility (SNF) copayment policy, with a large increase in the daily copayment rate on the 20th day of a benefit period, on length of stay, patient outcomes, and costs. The authors used retrospective cohort study from 2012 to 2016 including Medicare claims and SNF assessment data, including SNF admissions for Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries. The authors first estimated how changes in Medicare's SNF copayment on the 21st day of a patient's benefit period affect length of SNF stay. They then then used benefit day on admission as an instrumental variable to estimate the impact of SNF length of stay related to the copayment policy on readmission and Medicare payment. Medicare's SNF copayment policy is associated with shorter lengths of stay and worse patient outcomes, suggesting the copayment policy has unintended and negative effects on patient outcomes.
Werner RM, Konetzka RT, Qi M, Coe NB: The Impact of Medicare Copayments for Skilled Nursing Facilities on Length of Stay, Outcomes, and Costs. Health Services Research 54(6): 1184-1192, Dec 2019.