Paid Care Services and Transitioning Out of the Community among Black and White Older Adults with Dementia
Paid care provided in the home includes important support services for older adults with dementia such as cleaning and personal care assistance. By reducing unmet needs, these services could delay the transition to residential long-term care, but access may differ across racial groups. This study examined the relationship between paid care and transitioning out of the community among Black and White older adults with dementia.
Roche-Dean M, Baik S, Moon H, Coe NB, Oh A, Zahodne LB: Paid Care Services and Transitioning Out of the Community among Black and White Older Adults with Dementia. The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social services Sep 2022 Notes: Online ahead of print.
Growth of Private Pay Senior Housing Communities in Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States: 2015-2019
Older adults needing assistance with activities of daily living can receive support in various settings. Senior housing communities, such as independent living, assisted living, and continuing care retirement communities, are an increasingly popular option for adults not requiring nursing home-level care. However, limited research exists due to a dearth of data on these types of communities. We use a proprietary data set to describe the market of private pay senior housing and community-level characteristics in 140 metropolitan statistical areas, from 2015 to 2019. Although the number of senior housing communities increased substantially, the supply of senior housing options supporting the continuum of care has not necessarily kept up with population growth. Describing the supply of senior housing communities across the spectrum of levels of care provides a more complete description of the formal noninstitutional long-term care supply among the 140 most populated metropolitan statistical areas.
Miller KE, Zhao Jiayi, Laine LT, Coe NB: Growth of Private Pay Senior Housing Communities in Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States: 2015-2019. Medical care research review (MCRR) Jul 2022 Notes: Online ahead of print.
With ongoing efforts to improve the value of health care in the U.S. and reduce wasteful spending, we examine empirically the value tradeoffs involved in an additional day in a skilled nursing facility (SNF) after hospital discharge. To control for potential endogeneity, we use the percentage of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare Advantage in each county-year as an instrument for individuals’ SNF length of stay among Traditional Medicare beneficiaries, as local Medicare Advantage penetration puts downward pressure on SNF length of stay for all SNF patients but does not directly affect utilization management of those enrolled in Traditional Medicare. We also test for heterogeneity in treatment effect across patients by clinical complexity and two non-health-related factors, marital status and nursing home profit status. We find that one additional day in a SNF lowers short-term readmission rates, but this effect is small and heterogeneous across patient-types. The most clinically complex patients (those with the longest predicted SNF stays) benefit the most from an additional SNF day, as do patients whose stays are shorter due to non-health-related factors. The cost savings from reduced readmission rates are small and do not offset the additional SNF costs.
Werner RM, Coe NB, Qi M, Konetzka T: The value of an additional day of post-acute care in a skilled nursing facility. American Journal of Health Economics 8(4), Jul 2022.
We estimate the causal impact of intensive caregiving, defined as providing at least 80 h of care per month, and work on the mental health of caregivers while considering possible sources of endogeneity in these relationships.
Kolodziej I, Coe NB, Van Houtven C: The Impact of Care Intensity and Work on the Mental Health of Family Caregivers: Losses and Gains. The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 77(Suppl_1): S98-S111, May 2022.
This study examines the effect of Medicaid eligibility expansion under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on the utilization of nursing home services by younger individuals and those covered by Medicaid.
Ritter A, Freed S, Coe NB: Younger Individuals Increase Their Use of Nursing Homes Following ACA Medicaid Expansion. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 23(5): 852-857, May 2022.
We estimate the spending attributable to Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) to the United States government for the first 5 years post-diagnosis.
Coe NB, White L, Oney M, Basu A, Larson EB: Public spending on acute and long-term care for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Alzheimer's & Dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association Mar 2022 Notes: Online ahead of print.
Informal Caregivers Provide Considerable Front-Line Support In Residential Care Facilities And Nursing Homes
Informal care, or care provided by family and friends, is the most common form of care received by community-dwelling older adults with functional limitations. However, less is known about informal care provision within residential care settings including residential care facilities (for example, assisted living) and nursing homes. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (2016) and the National Health and Aging Trends Study (2015), we found that informal care was common among older adults with functional limitations, whether they lived in the community, a residential care facility, or a nursing home. The hours of informal care provided were also nontrivial across all settings. This evidence suggests that informal caregiving and some of the associated burdens do not end when a person transitions from the community to residential care or a nursing home setting. It also points to the large role that families play in the care and well-being of these residents, which is especially important considering the recent visitor bans during the COVID-19 epidemic. Family members are an invisible workforce in nursing homes and residential care facilities, providing considerable front-line work for their loved ones. Providers and policy makers could improve the lives of both the residents and their caregivers by acknowledging, incorporating, and supporting this workforce.
Coe NB, Werner RM: Informal Caregivers Provide Considerable Front-Line Support in Residential Care Facilities and Nursing Homes. Health Affairs 41(1): 105-111, Jan 2022.
The needs of persons living with Alzheimer's disease and Alzheimer's disease-related dementia (AD/ADRD) are challenged by tremendous complexity impacting both care delivery and financing. Most persons living with dementia (PLWD) also suffer from other chronic medical or mental health conditions, which further burden quality of life and function. In addition to difficult treatment choices, optimal dementia care models likely involve people and services that are not typical pieces of the health care delivery system but are all critical partners-care partners, social workers, and community services, to name a few. More than 200 models of dementia care have demonstrated some efficacy. However, these successful interventions that might address much of the care needed by PLWD are uninsured in the United States, where insurance coverage has focused on acute care needs. This poses great difficulties for both care provision and care financing. In this article, we review these 3 key challenges: dementia care for those with chronic comorbid disease; care models that require people who are not typical providers in traditional care delivery systems; and the mandate to provide high-quality care that is currently not funded by usual health care insurance. We propose promising next steps that could substantially improve the lives of PLWD and the lives of their care partners, and highlight some of the many research questions that remain.
Coe NB, Boyd CM, Chodosh J: Chronic Care, Dementia Care Management, and Financial Considerations. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 22(7): 1371-1376, Jul 2021.
Demographic Characteristics Driving Disparities in Receipt of Long-term Services and Supports in the Community Setting
Research suggests that growth in Black and Hispanic (minority) older adults' nursing home (NH) use may be the result of disparities in access to community-based and alternative long-term services and supports (LTSS). We aimed to determine whether minority groups receiving care in NHs versus the community had fewer differences in their functional needs compared with the differences in nonminority older adults, suggesting a disparity.
Travers JL, Naylor MD, Coe NB, Meng C, Li F, Cohen AB: Demographic Characteristics Driving Disparities in Receipt of Long-Term Services and Supports in the Community Setting. Medical Care 59(6): 537-542, Jun 2021.
Prior research and the popular press have anecdotally reported inadequate nursing home staffing levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. Maintaining adequate staffing levels is critical to ensuring high-quality nursing home care and an effective response to the pandemic. We therefore sought to examine nursing home staffing levels during the first nine months of 2020 (compared with the same period in 2019), using auditable daily payroll-based staffing data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. We found that the total number of hours of direct care nursing declined in nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic, as did the average nursing home census. When we accounted for changes in census, the number of nurse staff hours per resident day remained steady or, if anything, increased slightly during the pandemic. The observed increases in staff hours per resident day were small but concentrated in nursing homes operating in counties with high COVID-19 prevalence, in nursing homes with low Medicaid census (which typically have more financial resources), and in not-for-profit nursing homes (which typically invest more in staffing). These findings raise concerns that although the number of staff hours in nursing homes did not decline, the perception of shortages has been driven by increased stresses and demands on staff time due to the pandemic, which are harder to quantify.
Werner RM, Coe NB: Nursing Home Staffing Levels Did Not Change Significantly During COVID-19. Health Affairs (Project Hope) 40(5): 795-801, May 2021.